Carl Jung on Complementary and Compensatory Dreams.

Lecture II 10th May, 1935

Last time we made a brief survey of the unconscious composition of dreams.

Today we will speak of the Function of the Dream.

There are two classifications: (1) complementary, (2) compensatory.

(1 ). Th e complementary classification.

The elements which have not been present in daily consciousness are automatically brought forward.

A certain situation, for example, occurred during the day, we only noticed one aspect of it and did not see all round it.

The other aspects and contents, therefore, were left out either intentionally or unintentionally and they automatically come up in dreams.

(2). The compensatory classification.

Here, on the other hand, we see that psychic material entering into dreams which belongs to the idea of the totality of the personality.

It is as if there were a direct intention to give all the material that is needed to complete the conscious situation.

In the second case we must speak of tendency, of intention, to give these things to consciousness.

But in using the terms tendency and intention we carry a conscious point of view into the unconscious, and we do not know if this is permissible.

The totality of the psyche consists of both the conscious and the unconscious, possibly this gives us the right, but we must admit that only a few dreams substantiate this.

Dreams certainly do hit the vital point with great precision.

Antique culture always regarded them as messengers, and we cannot afford to ignore the opinions of antiquity, because the ancients had a psychology which was much broader than ours for they saw a much simpler world than we do.

We cannot hear our own voices for the newspapers, but they had time to listen to their inner experiences.

So the conceptions of antiquity point more to a compensatory point of view than to a complementary one.

It is as if a transcendental subject existed beyond the ordinary empirical subject, and as if this transcendental subject threw light on the conscious standpoint.

Then the question arises why, if a transcendental subject exists, does it not speak in reasonable language?

One can only say that such a purpose must use the material available to it and this material consists of the contents of the unconscious all of which are influenced by the contamination of which we spoke last time, and that material necessitates a very different language from that of our own conscious world.

The conscious, in order to speak reasonably, is forced to exclude many aspects and contents of a situation, but to exclude is not the function or the purpose of the transcendental subject which, by its very nature, is forced to use a wider and more comprehensive form of speech.

It is not dealing with conscious material, so there only remains a contaminated material which resembles the speech of the primitive who does not see things as differentiated.

He is in participation, which we are now calling contamination.

It is impossible for us to see how a primitive identifies himself with a crocodile, but this is the result of his contaminated mental condition.

In a sense, he is a crocodile because he can be as dangerous as a crocodile, and an eagle when he is as fearless as an eagle, he is a clan brother of both.

The primitive can even go into the water with the conviction that the crocodile will not eat him, for contamination is so natural to him that he will even trust his life to it.

We dream of a combined figure with the face of the real father, the figure of an uncle, and the gestures of an Esteemed teacher.

This figure is formed from all the people who from professional or family connections have been associated with us in a fatherly aspect, they are all contaminated and made into one figure by the unconscious.

It is as if the transcendent function had to express itself through turbid, obscure material.

This is very clearly visible in the material of the insane.

If you ask me for my interpretation of the function of the dream I must reply that I gave both these aspects, because though I have known many dreams which could be satisfactorily explained by the complementary classification, I have also
known many which could not.

This latter kind of material forces me to think that tendency and intention do exist, and that the human personality consists of two important parts, one of which often possesses a greater and riper knowledge than the conscious subject.

Dreams sometimes refer to things ten years before the conscious has any idea of their existence, this leads us to believe in the anticipatory quality of dreams.

Use of dreams.

I can touch on this point very briefly.

Their main use is to throw light on a dark situation, and to enlighten that which he cannot see through.

In practical analysis they often reveal things which we could never reach through asking questions of the patient; so we turn to dreams to show us what tendencies and possibilities exist which can be brought
into daily life.

The conscious can plan great things which it is quite unable to reach and dreams often show us a door leading
to a possibility that we could never conceive of consciously.

It is contamination itself which shows us these unguessed connections; in the clear rooms of our consciousness we lock the door on just those contents, seemingly irrelevant, that could help us.

Often easy ways lie close at hand though they are invisible to our consciousness.

The special purpose of this process is that these contents should not be regarded as merely interesting, but should be put into daily life.

Only when they are integrated have they really fulfilled their functions.

We have spoken of methods by which to see the dark processes of the unconscious and we have learnt that long sequences roll on continuously and that our dreams are pieces of this process.

The fact that these contents force themselves into all situations, and hinder us by making us forget words, say the wrong thing, and so on, proves that these processes never cease and never sleep.

So the unconscious is a moving psychic layer which we see only when disturbances occur.

It would be best if one could just remove the conscious and watch, but this is not possible for nothing would be left with which to observe.

So the task is to find a way to remove the obstruction of consciousness and yet to leave an eye with which to see what appears on the dark background of the psyche.

Here we closely approach eastern methods.

There is such a way but it is dark to western consciousness, which has no idea of these things, and feels bewildered by them.

I will try to put it so that you do not feel too bewildered.

Directly we try to see something of the unconscious we have already sinned against western ideals; when we make ourselves empty so as to invite these contents to manifest themselves, we have already laid ourselves open to suspicion.

Yet the East says this is the very beginning of wisdom, they already teach little children that much; so when we empty ourselves we open up a new territory – Yoga.

The Latin “ugum” – yoke – shows its purpose, which is to yoke the horses of the unconscious.

We have these wild horses, the complexes, in our unconscious; they do not only plague the nervous, but the normal also.

We all know of things that hinder us and which we want to suppress with the whole force of the will which is a poor, blunt instrument with, at best, temporary effect, to use against such things.

The East has known all these facts for thousands of years, it is only in the West that they are unknown; the West where we look everywhere but into ourselves.

Just to empty your consciousness sounds easy, but it is a very difficult task indeed.

Most people use eastern ways to do this, which is mere apelike mimicry.

I have only mentioned the East as an analogy and I should like to take the opportunity to give a public warning against imitations of the East.

It is our task to find a way to come to terms with these things in our own manner.

Eastern ways are quite unsuitable to the western form of consciousness.

The principal thing is to know how this can be done and I will give you an example to make this clear.

A young man of 32, an artist, a painter, had a particular difficulty in finding a way to this emptying of consciousness.

Yet it was most important for him as he had symptoms of a peculiarly pregnant and threatening unconscious: he had far too many dreams and their menacing quality kept him from sleeping.

In such cases it is necessary to use drastic measures.

There is, as it were, a big abscess.

You cannot reach the contents with outward methods, but must operate up on it.

This method of phantasying while awake is not only useful in illness but has a universal application.

I suggested therefore to this young man that he should try to phantasy but he was quite unable to do so and could only repeat to himself over and over again: “I must have an empty conscious”.

At last after trying for three or four weeks he was sitting one day at Stadelhofen Station, waiting for his train to come out to see me, when he was attracted by a poster of Murren, a landscape of a hill with cows upon it.

He thought: “Why I could walk up that hill to those cows”.

He did so, and looked down over the other side to a view over the Alps; there was a gate in the foreground with a path beyond
it leading downwards.

He went through the gate and walked down the path and came to a corner round which was a chapel.

He entered the chapel and found it contained a religious picture; something with pointed ears suddenly disappeared
behind this picture.

At this point he thought “This is all nonsense, why I made it up myself”.

But in the train he thought: “Well, after all, I should try again and if it all happens in the same way I shall not have invented it.

“So he walked up the hill for the second time and everything was just the same, even to the creature with the pointed ears.

Then he came to my office jubilant, saying “Now I have it!”

It was his cramped attitude which had hitherto stopped the phantasy from appearing.

The attitude of the East towards these matters is quite different, they give things a chance to express themselves quite
naturally in the same spirit as a child makes a doll of a piece of wood, which comes, as it were, to life in its hands.~Carl Jung,
ETH Lecture, 10May1935, Pages 205-207.

Carl Jung on “Complexes” and “Ideas.”

Lecture I 3rd May, 1935

I will give you a short resume of the themes which were treated in the lectures which I have given during the last year.

We spoke principally of methods, and first amongst these of association tests, intended to find the feeling toned complexes in the unconscious.

Complexes are autonomous; their autonomy is shown by the way they influence and change conscious intentions.

They cause:

1) Forgetfulness: We forget a word, usually a name. It is kept back by its relation in the unconscious to the complex. I am not
speaking of common forgetfulness which is quite a different thing, but of abnormal forgetfulness.

2) Lapsus linguae: using the wrong word in the wrong place. The complex often plays the role of the little devil in this respect.

3) Misunderstanding: if we are speaking of anything in the neighbourhood of a complex we must take great care that we are not misunderstood, for the complex will use its language instead of ours if it possibly can.

4) Involuntary facial expressions : most people cannot control their facial expressions, only a skilled actor can do this. If a complex
is touched our faces, or perhaps our hands, betray us.

5) Emotion: when a feeling toned complex is touched, people become upset emotionally. When we do not understand our emotion we feel quite innocent about it, but its cause can usually be traced to the complex. Such reactions can take place without our conscious knowledge, or, perhaps we recognise the emotion at the beginning, but then another long wave of affect takes place unnoticed which is expressed in bodily reactions, such as perspiration.

These experiments make it possible for us to get some idea of unconscious affects and complexes.

Patients come to analysis knowing nothing whatever about these; it is impossible to make a direct approach but if I ask them, for instance, what they think I think they usually become very eloquent! Complexes can also
be called fragmentary souls.

Secondly we spoke of dreams and, as we did so, it became apparent that dreams have something of the quality of autonomous complexes.

The complex often appears quite nakedly in a dream as it never does in the conscious, but it is always expressed in curious and indirect language.

We saw that we must find the associations in order to widen the field of the dream and to see where it connects with consciousness.

It is also necessary to pay attention to the psychic atmosphere of the dream images.

By these means we can arrive at its meaning.

All dreams originate in the unconscious though occasionally a dream can be induced by suggestion or hypnosis.

Dreams can spring from physical or psychic causes, a dream can be caused by hunger, fever, cold, et cetera, but even then the dreams themselves are made of psychic material.

Many dreams come from split off psychic contents, if I try to dissociate myself from something I am very likely to dream of it.

People with a narrow consciousness often have meaningful dreams, especially those who have great trouble in seeing who they are and where they belong; many people spend their entire lives without being able to discover this.

It sometimes happens that such people identify with a content in a dream that belongs to a fate which it is far beyond their capacity to live, and this may cause a bad split, or even a psychosis.

Some dreams spring from contact with basic archetypal contents of the unconscious, contents which have never been anywhere near consciousness.

I will give you some diagrams to make this clearer.

Diagram I

Diagram I.

a) is the circle of consciousness;
b) is an unpleasant content which has been made taboo, what the English call a “skeleton in the cupboard”.
It is driven out, and made autonomous.

Diagram II.

Here the reverse process has taken place;

b) the complex, has remained fixed and a) the conscious, has moved away from it.

This is a question of two different types.

The type represented in the first diagram is more hysterical, and the second appears to be more normal for he keeps the abnormal thing out of his everyday life, but unintentionally he is always affected by it.

Diagram III.

Everyone has complexes, there is nothing to be ashamed of in that; it would in fact be highly suspicious if we found someone who had no complexes, for these are the fires of the psyche.

This diagram is of a normal man who knows the positive and negative aspects of his conscious,

a), but who does not reckon with the fact that his conscious is contained in a far larger unconscious which has its own complexes,

b). People who deny their complexes become separated from their energy because there is no energy without complexes.

If all the conflict is in the archetypes, then the energy is all in the unconscious; this state of things continues until life produces a situation which constellates the archetype in us.

When this happens the complex takes on a tremendous growth.

It is, of course, essential to become conscious of what is happening and by this we can gain a heightened consciousness; if we do not gain this consciousness the energy is lost, it disappears into the unconscious again.

Miracles are symbols for a heightened understanding of life; learning to fly without wings, telepathy, Yoga practices, etc., all belong psychologically to this heightened consciousness.

I did not say very much about the mechanism of dreams, I will give you some main points on that subject now.

1. Contamination.

This is the central point which relates innumerable things to each other.

It consists of unlimited contact with all possible images that are drawn from thousands of things which we would never have thought of putting together.

I will give you an example in the form of a task.

Choose some simple thing, a table, for example.

The wood that it is made of, its size and such facts come to our mind at once; but the whole world stands in some relation or other to it.

A cloth, for instance, has a direct relation to it, but it seems a far cry from a table to Julius Caesar, the sequence, however, leads us there quickly if we know it.

The famous German word “Zug”, of which Mark Twain complains, connects an amazingly long and various list of things.

The understanding is inactive while we dream; if we take hold of one piece of the fabric of contamination, any of the innumerable things with which it is connected may come up with it.

In the conscious we concentrate on the meaning of the word, and we prevent ourselves from giving it too wide a meaning.

But this is reversed in the unconscious, so that not only the one word is brought up, but all words in its proximity.

You can see this very clearly in psychotic states.

I will give you some examples.

I had a patient in an asylum who always called herself “die Lorelei”.

I asked her why, and she replied that she had been in the asylum for a long time and that each time she told the doctor she should be let out, because she was the Czar, the Grand Mogul, or some such person, he always replied “Ich weiss nicht was solidas bedeuten” so of course she must be the Lorelei!

She also called herself the silver island and had a dream of an island consisting of a silver mountain.

She explained this by saying “Silence is golden and speech is silver” and that she talked a lot so she
was silver.

You can really say anything when you begin to think in this way.

Another patient said that he was Socrates’ representative, because like him he h a d suffered for many years in prison – the asylum.

We sometimes get dreams in which we cannot form the content, and what happens to us while asleep, happens to the insane while they are awake.

2. Condensation.

This is a stronger form of contamination, it does not only connect but condenses innumerable things.

The crab-lizard monster, which we spoke of last year, is such an image.

3. Doubling, or multiplication, is the opposite of condensation.

Certain people, or experiences, appear doubled, or multiplied.

4. Concretizing.

It is as if the unconscious could not think logically so that it expresses itself in little stories; it often, for instance, represents complexes by people, who can be either real or imaginary. In our conscious life we often pick out a friend or enemy to be our bete noire, he has the qualities we do not wish to see in ourselves and we stick very closely to him.

5. Dramatizing.
This is a mechanism which dramatizes everything that happens.

6. Archaic Mechanism.

This is translating things into archaic forms, into animals which app ear in fairy tales and the such like. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 1May1935, Pages 201-204.

Carl Jung answers questions on the Nature of Dreams

Lecture VII 8th March, 1935

There are several questions today.

The first question is highly philosophical.

Speaking from the standpoint of many thousands of dreams I cannot say that they show guidance.
It is as if the dream were quite uninterested in the fate of the ego, it is pure Nature, it expresses the given thing, it mirrors
the state of our consciousness with complete detachment; it never says “to do it in such and such a way would be well”,
but states that it is so.

If anyone knows how to read the meaning of the dream it is very well for him, if not, it is an opportunity missed, but every day is
full of missed opportunities.

There are certain dreams which seem really to concern themselves with the fate of the ego, but these belong to
the category of big dreams.

Dreams as a whole are without purpose, like nature herself, it is wiser to regard them as such.

The second question speaks of the memory images which occur in dreams; things , countries, situations, which the dreamer
has never seen or experienced, though they have associations to real experiences of a quite different nature.

This is a question of paramnesia, it is what the French call le sentiment du “deja vu”, a parallel memory.

These associations have nothing to do with the archetypes, they are probably built up over the archetypes, but the archetype
itself does not appear in them.

But in certain cases of affinities to people or things, a personal sense of “deja vu”, such as Go \ethe describes
when he expresses the feeling: “Were you in times gone by my sister or my bride”, the archetype is touched.

Next term I intend to deal with this more fully.

The third question asks if we can dream of experiences undergone by our ancestors.

I cannot be sure of this.

There are so many curious sources from which we dream, that we cannot say for certain where anything comes from.

Here we come to cryptomnesia (hidden memories).

Flournoy’s Helene Smith in “Somnambulisme avec Glossolalie” is a classic example, also the example I gave you last
year from Nietzsche’s Zarathustra.

Benoit was accused of plagiarism of Rider Haggard’s “She” in his “L’ Atlantide”.

He denied this, however, and I quite believe him, for both these figures are coupled with the archetype of the anima.

It is almost impossible to prove what is actual ancestral experience, in the first place we should have to be sure that the dreamer had never
heard of the experience, then that it actually had happened, and so on, all conditions hard to be sure of.

The fourth question asks if there are not certain types of people who are more likely to have archetypal dreams than others.

In my experience these dreams can come to all types of people.

It is a question of the archetypal situation in the man ‘ s life.

There are certain people with a low threshold of consciousness, one might almost say a schizophrenic tendency.

These people have a specially thin skin with weak places in it, and they experience archetypal situations far more readily than
other thick-skinned people who ride roughshod over the world.

Such experiences as military service and getting engaged to be married, for instance, are just sugar to thick-skinned people
but there are other people who find these experiences filled with the whole of life’s tragedy and they are quite unable to
stand the strain. These experiences may b e a donkey ride or a terrible shock, both
aspects are equally real.

To return to our dream, I still owe you a clear interpretation.

I have broken my head in trying to find one for you and have often wished that I had never given you this dream at all!

We must imagine ourselves in the situation of the dreamer, an aesthetic and sensitive person, with a thin skin like a
fragile glass, confronted with a vast cathedral which will certainly impress him very deeply.

A cathedral shows a whole world, the House of God, the greatness of the mediaeval “Weltanschauung” (outlook on life).

We hardly realise how much our modern spirit is founded on such a building, the last expression of an age.

The great church stands clear above the ground, and underneath it lies a secret which at this stage we will not attempt
to define, an incomprehensible secret.

The dreamer has not got this secret, it has him.

The essential thing is not what the dreamer believes but what he is; it is not my creed that matters, but what I am, every
gesture betrays me.

We do not know what this secret is, but the symbols which he found point to history, indications that not only the Christian
“Weltanschauung” is meant, but quite other ” Weltanschauungs ” of which the Church wishes to remain in ignorance.

A darkness lies under the conscious, the unconscious, the dark place under the church.

We do not know what this is, but we find a thread of it here.

The secret was known to the church, and it was kept in the Sacramentum, hidden from the profane.

Christ was referred to as the fish.

In a papyrus which has recently been discovered and is in the British Museum he is referred to by the secret sign XP. T

he sign is formed from it.

These signs appear in Gnosticism, St. Paul’s sayings are undoubtedly connected with Gnosticism.

On Gnostic gems we find the symbol of the vase, the vase of sin.

The Gnosis is a disturber of the peace of the Church, but it is full of psychological truths, many yet undiscovered.

The vase was the crater, and is very often thought of in connection with Aesculapius, the doctor.

The Egyptian form of this is expressed by the well bucket in which the fruitful water of the Nile is drawn up.

The same symbol appears next in the Grail legend and seems to come to an end there.

In Wolfram von Eschenbach’s history of Parsifal, written in the beginning of the thirteenth century, we find this sentence “It is
called the “Lap sit exillis”; this was interpreted “lapis ex coelis”, the precious stone out of which the Grail was made coming from
the sky, but the word was really “exilis” which means small, insignificant; this appeared so strange that the meaning of the
word was changed.

About the same time, in Provence, the philosopher Villanova speaks of the philosopher’s stone as the lapis exilis”, describing
it as one stone, one medicine, one vase, the symbol of healing.

This leads us over to the secret gnosis of the Middle Ages, when it takes the form of alchemy.

This hidden teaching is continue d to the present day in the form of secret societies, the most important of those surviving
being the Free Masons.

They do not treasure “da ” consciousness, but the things which belong to “night” consciousness.

The vast number of members of these societies shows how living these things still are.

I have given you this one sequence, it must serve as an example to show that what is being done now has been done before
and will recur again.

This dreamer is not a member of any of these secret societies, he is an unprejudiced young man so his dream comes straight
from the unconscious.

There is a secret dark life among the primitives also and unless we know of it we understand nothing of their psychology.

If we seek our connection with the snake we come to the spinal cord and that points to the animal soul of man which leads
him down into the darkness of the body, into the instinct which one meets in animal form in the outer world.

When we come on instinct in the inner world it appears containing the most strange things as is the case in this dream.

The task which is given the dreamer is to find a connection with this dark instinctive soul.

This is a difficult task for he will get no help from the time he lives in, for this instinctive soul is denied on every side.

This attitude does not help us any more than it would to say that bacteria and mosquitoes are nonsense; they exist
and so does the instinctive soul.

If the secret teaching of the primitive tribe is lost the whole tribe goes to pieces for it has lost its connection with the mother

That means that it has lost the ground under its feet, but civilised man lives like a balloon, he is nowhere in touch with the
round, with reality.

Primitives are really human animals living on the lap of the earth and from its sap.

We are merely enlightened!

We see the cathedral but we do not know what is under it, we do not know what a cathedral is, what religion is.

We do not know why th e Christian “Weltanschauung” exists, and why it is so insisted upon.

The real reason is that these things lie under it, these essential roots of man; they belong to the secret teaching
and had to be hidden, the Church was built over them and because of this people have become cut off from their

The one thing we cannot fight is the madness of man and his sick ideas; if these deep roots are cut off it is only good
luck if there is no general explosion of all the gas balloons which are floating over the earth.

This young man should be able to reach back to these roots and take them without guile, though with full consciousness
of what he is doing, but he prefers to betray the snake and give the task over to the shadow.

He is unconscious of his problem. It is the task of all of us to understand the ways of the left hand, to pierce it with the
clear insight of the intellect.

This is exceedingly painful, but if we can do it we learn to see in the dark and we discover the secret, which is the
foundation and meaning lying below all the philosophies and religions on the earth. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 8March1935,
Pages 205-208.

Carl Jung on Phantasy and the Solar Plexus

Lecture XI 12th July, 1935

I left off last time with the theme of the solar plexus.

This time I have brought a Lamaistic Mandala to show you, as an analogy to our vision: it is complicated and
contains many qualities.

The East understands active phantasying and its inner meaning far better than we do.

It has had many centuries of experience, so this picture is highly differentiated.

In the centre there is a square, the cloister, which has four doors.

You will remember that there was a spring of water in the middle of the cloister in our patient’s phantasy.

Here we find a cross in which there is a remarkable drawing of the thunderbolt diamond, which depicts magic power.

This mandala is one of the few that contains no human figures; Shiva and his Shakti, his eternal feminine, are generally
represented, or some other figure such a s a Buddha; the centre usually holds many such figures.

These mandalas are plastically conceived and are built up on a flat surface or table, especially in Thibet.

Then they are covered by a “stupa” which is the Indian word for pagoda.

The chief development of the stupas took place in Buddhism.

The mandalas were square, 6-fold, 8-fold, or sometimes round, and they were covered with stupas, like umbrellas.

Sometimes there are as many as fourteen stories and the temple bells are hung round the eaves of the stupas.

The holy relic is buried in the innermost mandala.

The same idea is found in the Maya culture, in the temple of the warriors.

When this temple was excavated it was discovered to be on the site of one that was still older.

A limestone vase was found containing the most beautiful mandala that can be imagined, made of a great number of turquoises.

In m any other mandalas you find the same idea.

These western phantasies hint at things which are regarded as of the utmost importance in the East.

The golden flower is the centre of Chinese mandalas as the lotus or “Padma” in India and Thibet.

I will read you some quotations from the book of “The Secret of the Golden Flower”:

“The Golden Flower is the Light. What colour has the light?

One uses the Golden Flower a s an image.

It is the true power of the transcendent Great ‘One’.

The phrase, ‘The lead of the water-region has but one taste’, refers to it.”

Here the writer speaks of the substance of which the Golden Flower is made, which is found in the water region, the bladder, in

This is the localization in the psyche which is made entirely of animal substance, the spirit of weight which imprisons us and is described
as the most inferior thing.

This is the heaviness which Nietzsche tried to dance away.

He says in “Zarathustra” that the stone is thrown high indeed, but it must fall, and on the thrower.

This is the lead of the water region, it has one meaning, that the Golden Flower grows out of it.

This is the primeval substance out of which the Lapis, the Golden Flower, or the philosophers’ gold is made.

These come from the very commonest things.

The old alchemist said “If the huckster in the market knew that the things which he sells so cheap are the materials from which the
philosopher’s gold is made he would raise their price”, but he does not go on to tell us how to extract the gold.

We are told that it is to be found in old privies and manure heaps, but that “Many have worked on manure heaps and have found – nothing”.

“In the Book of Changes it is said: Heaven created water through the One. That is the true power of the Great One. If a man attains this
One he becomes alive; if he misses it he dies. But even if a man lives in the power [air, prana) he does not see the power [air), just as
Fishes live in water but do not see the water.”

This is the Tao in Chinese philosophy, it is always timeless, and is the beginning and the end. Out of Tao comes water – that
is the water region.

“A man dies when he has no life-air, just as the fishes are destroyed when deprived of water.

Therefore the adepts have taught the people to hold fast to the primal and to guard the One; it is the circular course of the Light and
the protection of the centre.”

Light is symbolic for consciousness; in doing the “circumambulatio” you must follow the direction of light, if you go the other way it
is black magic.

” If one guards this true power, one can prolong the span of life, and can then apply the methods of creating an immortal body by
‘melting and mixing’.”

If you are attentive the diamond or immortal body is formed.

“The work on the circulation of the light depends entirely on the backward flowing movement, so that the thoughts are gathered together
[the place of Heavenly Consciousness, the Heavenly Heart). The heavenly heart lies between Sun and Moon (i.e. the two eyes),”
The right eye is the sun eye and the left the moon eye. This heavenly heart, this centre, lies between the two eyes. “The Book of
the Yellow Castle says: In the field of the square inch, of the house of the square foot, life can be regulated. The house of the
square foot is the face. The field of the square inch is the face: what could that be other than the Heavenly He art? In the middle
of the square inch dwells the splendour.”

The Heavenly Heart is placed up in the forehead.

The Chinese believe that they think all kinds of thoughts in the heart, but these thoughts have a spiritual future so they rise.

But we believe that we think in our heads, for us, therefore, the treasure is in Manipura, in the fulness of jewels; so we have to
descend in order to find it. We do not do this voluntarily, it happens to us.

“In the purple hall of the city of jade dwells the god of utmost emptiness and life. The Confucians call it the centre of emptiness; the
Buddhists, the terrace of life ; the Taoists, the ancestral land . . . or the dark pass, or the space of former Heaven.
The Heavenly Heart is like the dwelling place, the Light is the master.”

The terrace of life is to be found in the Stupa buildings.

The Taoists call this the Land of the Ancestors.

The ancestral part is given to us by our body, we take over the life of our ancestors in that way.

It is the terrace of life because it is here that life renews itself.

The dark pass has to go backwards against consciousness.

“Therefore when the Light circulates, the powers of the whole body arrange themselves before its throne, just as when a holy king has taken
possession of the capital and has laid down the fundamental rules of order, all the states approach with tribute or, just as when the master is
quiet and calm, men-servants and maids obey his orders of their own accord, and each does his work. Therefore you only have to make the
Light circulate: that is the deepest and most wonderful secret. The Light is easy to move, but difficult to fix. If it is allowed to go long enough in a circle, then it crystallizes itself: that is the natural spirit body. This crystallized spirit is formed beyond the nine Heavens. It is the condition of which it is said in the Book of the Seal of the Heart: ‘Silently in the morning thou flyest upward’.”

“In carrying out this fundamental truth you need to seek for no other methods, but must only concentrate your thoughts on it. The book Leng
Yen says: ‘By collecting the thoughts one can fly and will be born in Heaven’. Heaven is not the wide blue sky, but the place where the body
is made in the house of the creative. If one keeps this up for a long time, there develops quite naturally, in addition to the body, yet another
spirit body.”

“The Golden Flower is the Elixir of Life.

All changes of spiritual consciousness depend up on the Heart.

Here is a secret charm, which, although it works very accurately, is yet so fluent that it needs extreme intelligence and clarity, and complete
absorption and calm.

People without this highest degree of intelligence and understanding do not find the way to apply the charm; people without this
utmost capacity for concentration and calm cannot keep fast hold of it.”

(These ideas are also typical of alchemy, in this western sister we often meet with the statement that the path to the alchemic gold
is no path for the stupid.)

The heart, the “golden castle”, is called the “germinal vesicle”, where the seat of 1he inner way lies:

” . . . . the ‘germinal vesicle’ is also known as the ‘borderline of the snow mountains’, the ‘primordial pass’, the ‘empire of the greatest joy’, the
‘land without boundaries’, and the ‘ altar upon which consciousness and life are made’. ‘If a dying man does not know this seed place’, says the
Hui Ming Ching, ‘he will not find the unity of consciousness and life in a thousand births and ten thousand aeons’.”

This is hard to define in western phraseology.

Christ’s saying to the man working on the Sabbath: “If you know what you do you are blessed, but if you know not you are cursed”
holds something of the same idea.

Jakob Boehme speaks of the eye that looks inward.

Boehme’s phantasies developed in this direction, though he had no connection with eastern ideas.

We will now leave this theme and return to our phantasy.

I am glad we do not have to follow it much further as it becomes very unpleasant; but this had to be, for it was altogether too beautiful and people
are tempted to stay forever in phantasies of that kind.

The patient continues very logically:

“I went on and came to some steps which led down to the water and I sat down on the bottom step. After I had waited some time two Indians
appeared in a canoe,”

The bottom step is symbolical, and means that it is necessary for her to go down to the very lowest.

The appearance of the Indians shows why she had to go down so far.

The patient i s an American so she has a secret relation to the Indians.

I once wrote an article for an American paper and called it “Your Indian and Negroid Behaviour” and I explained in it where the
Americans reminded me of these primitives.

When I became acquainted with negroes and Indians I saw Americans quite differently.

The negro has the quality of infecting you, you have to do the things which he does.

Jazz, for instance, is the rhythm of Umgoma, and also the sound of a heavy car.

I once saw a lorry whose engine was making this noise and out came the women and children and began to dance to the rhythm,
and soon the whole village was dancing round this lorry.

This is the negro, they are just children.

America is a half white land, this constitutes a fearful problem for if you live side by side with black people you become coloured.

I went to Africa in order to investigate this but it takes years for the black really to penetrate.

In Khartoum I met an English gentleman who bore one of the best English names but suffered from such a terrible inferiority that
he could only live in the colonies.

He had been to Eton and to Oxford, but, and this was the snag, he was born in Australia, so he had a touch of the colonial.

We think of this as English snobbism, but it really is a fact.

The child born in a country takes something of that land, it is the secret influence of the place.

It is even said that in the second generation the measurements of the skull have already altered.

In this phantasy we have Indians and not negroes.

The Indian influence is typical for the American.

If you dress American politicians and Indians in the same clothes and take pictures of them you cannot tell one from the other.

This is the secret influence of the soil which shows in other ways as well.

The genuine and cruel initiation ordeals in the American universities, for instance, are just the same as those of the Indians.

The ancestor ghosts stay on in a conquered land and you get the wrong children and the wrong souls creep into their bodies.

It is very dangerous to conquer the lands of strange peoples.

We know how bewildered this patient had become in modern life and here a piece of the original Indian who owned the American soil is
manifesting itself and coming to the surface.

These foreign bodies in a western consciousness frequently cause neuroses. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 12July1935, Pages 238-241.

Carl Jung on Phantasying in relation to Yoga Methods: East and West.

Lecture IV 24th May, 1935

Last time I spoke of phantasying in relation to the different methods of Yoga in the East and in the West.

We will continue this theme today, especially in its psychological aspect of active phantasying.

It is usually older and riper people who have these phantasies, younger people also have phantasies, but of a different kind, we must realise
that there are phantasies and phantasies.

The method of actual phantasying is seldom advisable for young people as it tends to hinder them in their task of getting into reality, and the young need actual experience.

There are exceptions, but only in neurotic and pathological cases should you employ this method with young people.

It is very inadvisable to make light use of these things, I warn everyone against it.

The method is indicated for older people but it is usually harder for them to apply.

I will give you a practical example of a normal woman, neither pathological nor neurotic.

She was an American, 55 years of age, highly educated in the n tural sciences, and the head of a large college in America.

She came to me after the war saying that she had come not because I was a doctor but because I was a psychologist.

She was not ill but disorientated.

Naturally her profession brought her into contact with the young generation and she could not understand the post war phenomena, the vogue of
sexual freedom.

The sudden release from the sexual taboo was bewildering to her; older people had not foreseen this and it disorientated many of them completely, particularly the well brought up and puritanical element in America.

She had been educated in such a respectable college that the women students never even saw a male corpse, all their studies being pursued
on female corpses!

With this innocent outlook she was suddenly confronted with a state of things the description of which I will spare you, read Lindsay’s book if you want to know about it.

Things went, of course, much too far.

These cases of the sudden collapse of a taboo have parallels among the primitives; an eclipse of the sun or moon causes a panic which dissolves
the taboo and results in wild promiscuity.

The same thing happened in the Panic caused by the Messina earthquake.

At the eleventh hour the life instinct asserts itself in order to procreate so that human life shall not be exterminated.

Post war psychology was a consequence of the panic of the war with results similar to those of the Messina earthquake.

This lady in her profession had many of these cases to handle and she became so confused that she eventually dropped the whole thing and took
a ship to Europe in order to ask me what it was all about.

She had noticed, that is, not consciously but somewhere she had a dim idea, that these things are infectious and that she herself had not wholly escaped.

But with a lady of her age and upbringing it is unthinkable that she should do anything practical about it and her fear made her react negatively to the whole thing and to the young people who brought her these problems.

The result was a growing condition of inferiority and a feeling that she was not up to her work.

Everybody in her position and with her up-bringing would have reacted in much the same way.

What she saw was the coming up of the inferior man; the outburst of crime, detective stories, gangsters, the popularity of the criminal
film, are all part of the same thing.

She did not realise that her situation could also be found among the primitives because she thought the white man stood miles above and
beyond them.

The case would have been simpler had the patient been younger because then she would not have been so adapted in her life.

In dealing with older people it is more difficult to make them see that what they hate so much is happening also in them, for this is just what
they are terrified of.

At their age these things make nonsense, they cannot live them, so they get into a wild panic.

It is in no way a situation to be taken lightly, if you ever get into a similar one you will realise how tragic it is.

The age of the body is something we often swindle ourselves about, but this swindle does not help the psyche.

You cannot go back to the psychology of forty years ago.

At an age which starts at about 45 the feeling makes itself felt which is expressed in the French bon mot: “Combien je regrette rna jambe bien faite, et le temps perdu”.

This lady had not married for many excellent reasons.

Her very first dreams showed that she had many phantasies but she could not reach them because the fear of regression stood between.

The task was not to push her back into instinctive psychology, that is the task of young people, but for people who have lived most of their life
and have found an adaption, it makes no sense at all to go back into these adventures with bodies quite unsuited to them.

The task in these cases is to look for the meaning, for there is a meaning in both love and sex, and in every instinctive urge.

The use of most of the instincts is obvious, sex, hunger, etc. but the purpose is not the meaning, that is something quite different.

The Yucca moth comes to maturity just as the Yucca bud opens.

Its father and mother are dead long before it comes out of the egg, yet it knows exactly what to do.

It collects pollen, rolls it into a ball, puts it on its thorax, and pushes it down so that the fruit of the Yucca plant is fertilized.

Then it lays fifty eggs.

If there were more, the plant would be destroyed, and then their means of subsistence would be gone.

Now who told the moth how many eggs to lay?

The moth is born with pictures, prepared in its system; the sun goes down and it knows that now it is the time to do this or that.

The instinct holds two aspects, the first is dynamic, pushing into action, but if there were only just action then eggs could be laid in any plant,
but it must be just the Yucca, so the moth has an image of that in itself in order to know what it should do.

These images are equal in importance to the action itself.

This system of images is also born in human beings, it is the archetypes, the potential force in man, but it only comes to the
surface when the moment for it is ripe, then the archetype functions as an urge, like an instinct.

In the collective unconscious the archetypes and the instincts are one and the same thing.

The English biologist Rivers refers to this as the “all or none reaction”, it goes right through or it does not start.

The archetypal or image side seldom comes to the surface in young people, they take instinct for granted, and never stop to think what the
meaning of it is, it just functions naturally.

But when the instinct becomes questionable, as always happens when you get older, you begin to wonder what it all means; the split has
already appeared and the images are liberated.

The active side of the instinct has become less demanding so the side of the images is dominating, it is as if the moth stopped
and wondered ” Why do I do this”, as if it would like to free itself from blindly following its instinct and look at the pictures instead.

This leads to philosophic questions which seem absurd to people who are actively living their instincts.

Hesitation only comes when the instinct begins to weaken.

The same instinct that moved you at the age of fifteen may be moving you again when much older and yet there is something showing
that the whole process which is happening in the unconscious is different, the images are becoming liberated from the active instinct.

When this process has a great deal of intensity, but remains in the unconscious, then these ideas get a strong hold in the unconscious which
dynamically influences the conscious, and a conflict ensues with neurotic complications.

Sexual perversions, for instance, often arise from this source, and this explains sudden abnormalities which appear in quite normal people.

They are not as a rule put into action but result in a perversion of phantasy.

How often do we hear of a respectable, elderly man who suddenly develops a penchant for the kitchen staff.

In such cases it is necessary to find the split in the instinct and to make it conscious, as it were to make the Yucca moth conscious of what it has done, and we must keep in mind that the possible explanation is that the moth did not act from biological, but from mythological reasons.

Experience with the primitives teaches us this.

The Great Spirit came to an Indian chief of forty in a dream and said to him:

“Now you will be a woman, you will eat with the women, sit with the women, and dress like a woman”.

He did so next day and of course he became taboo, mana, regarded as a wizard, and so on.

An image had detached itself from his natural instinct which turned him right round, but it does not usually work so
plastically or so quickly.

The natives who get the big dreams have lost their lust for fighting, their interest is now in the images instead of
being in life itself.

I will give you an example.

It concerns a man of fifty who found himself in the unpleasant situation of having to be a Don Juan.

He had to run after women, who in turn ran after him, and he had to envy every young couple he saw in the street, thinking that they
had what he was seeking.

I asked him why on earth he had to do this and he replied “They have a secret and I must discover it.”

It turned out that he had a negative mother complex.

She was a remarkable woman, too strong for his father, and so of course she had phantasies of other men, which she repressed, and
because of this repression the interest naturally went over on to the only son.

She constantly told him how he should feel, and treated him as if his feelings were hers.

Men whose mothers have done this to them get sentimental ideas, they never think that a man is just moved by the sexual instinct, but
that he is moved by a noble motive, the girl might be hungry, or have some secret sorrow.

He made several girls very unhappy, and then they really were sad for his sadism had made them so, but he went on believing in his good
intentions .

He was continually seeking for something and became like Bernhard Shaw’s figure in “Man and Superman”.

His mother had poisoned his feelings with her criticism and constant guidance. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture IV 24 May 1935, Pages 212-214.

Carl Jung and Medieval parallels to Mount Meru.

Lecture XV 3rd March, 1939

We were speaking last time of the medieval parallel to the Mount Meru sequence of symbols.

I will give you a chart to make it clearer:


Shri-Chakra-Sambhara Tantra Alchemy

I. Shunyata, Void. (Avidya) I. Chaos
II. Four Elements II. Tetrameria
III. Mount Meru III. Mons
IV. City IV. Civitas castrum
V. Four-headed Vajra, Four colors V. Quaternitas
VI. Lotus VI. Flos auri
VII. Moon VII. Luna
IX. Lotus with Yoni IX. Al-baida (Beya)
X. Moon with Lingam X. Conjunctio
XI. Vihara XI. Vas Hermetis
XII. Mahasukha XII. Lapis, Hermaphroditus, Homunculus

I. Shunyata, the Void, corresponds to chaos, the original condition.

It has the form of a moist sphere in which the primordial elements are contained in a mixed condition.

II. The four elements are brought forth from Shunyata, and correspondingly from the primal water of the chaos.

We still find this done symbolically in the Roman Catholic Church, the priest divides the water on Easter Eve with the sign of the cross.

This is to divide it into the four elements so that the water should possess the ability to give rebirth.

Medieval philosophy expresses the same idea by saying that the prima materia must be divided into four so as to give it the strength to b ear the new world.

III. In the Shri-Chakra- Sambhara Tantra this is Mount Meru and in alchemy it is the mons, (mountain) on which the panacea, the herb, or the philosopher’s
stone is to be found.

The names given to this herb, lunatica, lunaria, etc., show that it is connected with the head.

It is a poison and a remedy.

This is the psychological mystery of alchemy.

The mountain as we saw is identified by the Fathers of the Church with Christ and also with his mother Mary.

We spoke also of the stone described in the book of Daniel, the stone which was cut out without hands and became a great
mountain which filled the whole earth.

The mediaeval philosophers speak of the lapis angularis, and of the lapis exilis, the latter means the small insignificant stone.

And as we saw Christ is the corner stone which groweth into an holy Temple “and the small insignificant stone that became the great mountain and
which came out of the mountain Mary.

It is very necessary in psychology to return to these old examples or we cannot understand.

We must know how the human psyche came into being for in the unconscious the old ways are always trodden again.

This becomes quite clear if you think of a science such as anatomy, it is impossible to understand anatomy unless we study the history of its
biological development.

We find all the ancient forms of the human psyche in dreams and in such texts as the Shri-Chakra-Sambhara Tantra.

The unconscious comes into action through the attitude of the conscious in active imagination.

The official example of Yoga in the West is the exercitia spiritualia of St. Ignatius of Loyola.

We will speak of these in the next Semester.

Alchemy is not interesting to chemists for they are not interested in psychology.

The real meaning of alchemy was carefully veiled for in those days it was dangerous to be concerned with the Spirit outside the dogma of
the church.

When one studies the inside of these mysteries, and comes to understand them, one finds their great secrets lying hidden from the world,
just as they are hidden in the Tibetan texts.

These also were kept entirely secret.

It is only within the last few years that a few Lamas have become interested in giving their texts to the world.

This is largely due to Sir John Woodroffe and to the American Evans Wentz who succeeded in getting in touch with such people, and in interesting
them in the translation and publication of some of their texts.

The mountain is not only identified with Christ and Mary but also with the Holy Ghost.

Divinitas sancti spiritus has a peculiar relation to Mary, for the Sapientia Dei or Sophia was identified by the early Church with Mary.

So the mons is identical with three divine figures.

Such things become quite comprehensible when we think of the medieval point of view.

They thought of the world as coming out of the four elements and they personified the world-being by a god.

We also personify our mountains, think of the Jungfrau for instance.

III. We now come to the city which lies on Mt. Meru.

The parallel in alchemistic philosophy is the civitas castrum, the fortified city.

A city is definitely a feminine symbol and we come to Mary again.

She is called the acies castrorum, the castellum, the civitas or the gazophylacium.

The last means the house where the treasure is kept and is also called the domus thesauraria.

These expressions all originate with the Fathers of the Church, but the alchemists use them in connection with the veritas and sapientia,
truth and wisdom.

G. Dorneus speaks of the veritas as an impregnable castle, a citadel which cannot be stormed, it contains the treasure which is taken away
after death.

The idea is that the treasure is something which is ordained to eternal life, and apparently after death it goes up to the skies and leads a
post mortem existence.

IV. We come now to the four-headed Vajra.

Vajra as you know means diamond, the symbol for great durability.

The Sanskrit word Vajra could always be translated as eternal, Vajra weapons would be the eternal weapons and so on. ·

So the treasure in the citadel is an eternal treasure.

We find the same idea as the four-headed Vajra in an alchemistic text by G. Dorneus in the four castles of the sapientia.

Crystal, silver, diamond and the fourth is “something which does not fall under the senses”, it cannot be apprehended by
them, it cannot be understood.

This is very remarkable for this is also the case with the functions.

We can understand thinking, feeling and sensation but intuition is another thing.
We do not know how we arrive at an intuition, it is perception by way of the unconscious.

It is very interesting that the old Gnostics and alchemists already knew that the fourth could not be understood.

“Castrum in quose continet philosophicus amor”. (The castle in which the philosophicus amor lives.)

The philosophicus amor is the love of philosophy, the striving after truth, the search for the transformation of matter.

Alchemical philosophy is an instrument and a way to the inner transformation of man, a problem which is practically unknown today.

We find the same idea in the Heavenly Jerusalem of the Book of Revelation, that is a real “castrum”, plentifully decked with the imagination
of the author.

Alchemy is also occupied with the theme of decoration, the philosopher’s gold and the wonderful glass of the vitrum aureum, made from the
smelting of the elements, of crystal, diamond and gold, the idea of the most precious thing.

Pica della Mirandola, 1463-1494, wrote a book about phantasy and said that the soul lived in a royal castle.

So it is not astonishing that Christ, who contains all Christian souls, should be described as a protecting citadel.

Such an idea is found very early in the Christian Church and also among the heretics, mainly the Gnostics.

Hippolytus, who lived in the second century, spoke of the wall and fortress in which the inner man lived.

Gnosticism was savagely persecuted by the Church, so its texts are fragmentary and rare.

There is the Codex Brucianus, a Coptic text at the Bodleian Library in Oxford and fortunately several other Gnostic and Manichean
texts have been found in Egypt recently.

The Fathers of the Church could never quote the Gnostics, but here and there they could not resist mentioning their ideas but in a peculiar
form and very indirectly.

We find the idea of the Monogenes in the Codex Brucianus: “who dwelleth in the Monad as in a metropolis”.

The Monogenes is self-generated, none can s ay where he came from. St. John calls the Monogenes the Logos, the word, the Son of God.

He is the primal being, the Purusha.

As we have seen, the town containing a treasure is a very general idea.

The Monogenes is based on four.

We find the same idea in the four-headed Vajra of our text.

The latter has four colours and this theme also plays an important role in alchemy.

The alchemists speak of the cauda pavonis, the peacock’s tail, they regard it in the light of a vision, a treasure, and say that when such
colours appear in the retort the goal is not far off.

Heraclitus mentions black, white, red and yellow as the elements and the Greek painters used these four colours as a foundation,
from which they mixed their other colours.

These colours appear again and again till late in the Middle Ages.

The four colours represent the fact that the four-headed Vajra consists of four parts.

The original unity was divided in four, and was hatched into a unity again but it is a unity in which the four are still visible.

We find this idea again and again in alchemy.

There is a letter attributed traditionally to Aristotle (a Pseudo Aristotle naturally) addressed to Alexander the Great in which he says:

“Divide lapidem tuum in quattuor elementa et conjunge in unum.” (Divide thy stone into four and unite it into one.)

The idea of the quaternity itself was holy to the alchemists, and the medieval texts are full of this idea.

As I have already mentioned, we find it in the Codex Brucianus where the Monogenes is thought of as standing upon a platform, supported by
four pillars.

This is the Gnostic conception of Christ on the Tetramorphus, the four evangelists.

We find the quaternity everywhere, the four rivers of paradise, the Rex Gloriae with the four evangelists , etc. etc. V

ery beautiful western mandalas exist which are divided into four, eight, sixteen or thirty-two parts.

Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C. made the tetraktys, the quaternity, the basis of his teaching.

It is the number of the living one, the foundation of all life.

In Barbelo Gnosticism the first creature was Metra or the body of the mother in the chaos.

This was impregnated by the Pneuma and bore the four Aeons or eternal creatures, that is, the four elements.

In another Gnosis the Tetras descended to man and revealed that both God and man are a quaternity.

The Tetras came in a female form and indicated all the parts of the body.

This idea appears in the Middle Ages as the secret square of the philosophers.

It is also referred to as “our pelican” and a certain kind of alchemical retort, in which a circulating distillation takes place, is
called a pelican.

The pelican of course is a symbol for Christ.

It is always represented with its beak smiting its breast in order to feed its young.

It has a red spot on the beak which is the origin of the idea that it uses its own blood for this purpose.

Pelicanus noster means that our redeemer gives his blood to save us.

The medieval concept of squaring the circle is well known.

I. Chaos is the circle and II.

the division into four elements is the squaring of the circle.

This is done by a mathematical mystery, it is a mystic representation of the four elements and their union; the point in the middle is the mediator, quinta essentia, or pelicanus noster.

So the mediator is said to be he who brings about the squaring of the circle, he represents the mystery and its solution.

It is impossible to mention even a fraction of the widespread literature and art relating to the squaring of the circle.

The Rose Window, which is to be found in so many Churches and Cathedrals, is known to you all.

There is often a Rex Gloriae in the centre of such a window and it usually has 8,16 or more divisions.

We reach VI, the Lotus, with the rose symbolism.

The rose played a large role in the Middle Ages, it is the typical abstract symbol for the love of Dante in the Divine Comedy.

We find Mary as the rosa mystica in the Litany of Loretta.

The motif of the jewel in the lotus is very frequent in the East.

You will remember the mantra: “Om mani padme hum”, the jewel i n the Lotus.

The jewel in the rose has exactly the same meaning.

Christ is spoken of as being born or hidden in a rose, or as a sea bird resting in a flower of the sea.

This is a direct analogy to Buddha appearing in the Lotus in the Amitabha Land with geese and swans about him.

The idea of the flower plays an important role in medieval alchemy.

It is synonymous with the materia and the aqua permanens from which the philosopher’s stone is made.

It is also called the world flower, the flower of the sun or the golden flower, and is als o compared with Christ as the philosopher’s stone.

You find the same idea in the blossoming of Aaron’s rod.':

In the language of the Fathers of the Church the mystical rose is the flesh of Christ, the bud which holds the divine spirit as in a vase.

We come here to the idea of the containing vessel.

The steam which rises in the retort is thought of as the flowering of matter, steam is the transformation of the corporeal into the incorporeal, it represents the spirit.

The retort itself encloses the spirit, and it must be hermetically sealed so that the spirit does not vanish.

So the flower rising in the. retort represents the strength of the miraculous water, the psyche or spirit.

Komarius teaches Cleopatra that the dead who stay in Hades [that is in chaos) are transformed into Spring flowers by the miraculous dew.

This is the idea of the living elements in chaos or Shunyata waking and uniting through being contained in the lotus.

The mystical rose, like the lotus in India, grows for the salvation of man.

Dante saw the mystical rose as the last vision in the Paradiso, where it embraced the whole Heavens.

But we find the chief parallel to the lotus in the hymnology of Mary, where she is called the flower of Heaven, the noble rose of Heaven, the rose without thorn; she is also greeted as the sweet rose, etc.

This is exactly the same idea as that of the lotus in India.

Mary is the bud which contains the becoming being that is undergoing transformation. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 3Mar1939, Pages 97-101.

Carl Jung on Buddhist Mt. Meru and Western Alchemy

Lecture XIV 24th February, 1939

We reached the end of our long text in the last lecture and I expect you breathed a sigh of relief, but I must still inflict
some explanations on you.

I will briefly recapitulate the course of the process.

It falls as you will remember into three parts, Thesis, Anti-thesis and Synthesis.

The Thesis establishes the Lama’ s identity with Buddha.

He imagines his body as the Vajra or diamond body, Mahasukha, the Lord of the Mandala of Great Bliss including his female
counterpart, his Shakti.

The analysis of the Lama’s knowledge follows, he possesses every kind of knowledge and puts himself through an
examination so to speak.

He has to be certain that his knowledge is complete on every side for it is only with full understanding that he can become the

He assimilates the Buddha essence into himself.

He analyses the four functions for this purpose, personified by four Buddhas on the circle of the horizon at the
four points of the compass.

These enable him to be wholly conscious, he can see and understand all his surroundings through these four guardians
of the gates, these four functions.

We find these four in all religions in some form or other, in Islam they are the four angels of East, West, North and South.

Here they are the four indispensable constituents of the Buddha.

The Anti-thesis deals with everything which could attack the Thesis, the Lama defends himself against this attack.

His humanity asserts its reality; the concupiscentia and maya, which the illusion of the senses has produced, rise against

To defend himself against this attack, he invokes the “all-knowing one” to become round and round; that is, he appeals to
the fundamental basic perfection or totality.

The prayer for the absolution of his sins follows and the very important projection of the ten female Devatas.

This is the first time that the Yogin deals with his feminine unconscious.

The projection takes place from the centre of the four square in the circle of the horizon, and the ten female Devatas go to
the eight points of the compass, zenith and nadir.

This four square is the Vihara, the cloister, where the Lama is magically enclosed.

The creation of the vajra weapons follows for the annihilation of the wicked and the anti-thesis ends with the statement that
the Lama is the Void [Shunyata); that is, Buddha who is being and non-being.

Shunyata is identical with Nirvana.

The Synthesis is a positive process, in which the long sequence which I spoke of takes place.

The basis of this sequence is Shunyata from which the four elements emerge through active imagination.

Mt. Meru is built on the elements, with its towered town and the four headed Vajra on top.

A series of technical representations follows, the lotus, moon and sun, the lotus with the yoni and the moon
with the lingam.

The Lama sits in the Vihara, the magic circle, as Buddha.

The sequence of symbols is exceedingly complicated and I have not yet explained it.

It is a canon of the symbolic.

The mediaeval western counterpart of the process described in our text is to be found in alchemy.

The alchemical concept of chaos is the same as that of the Void [Shunyata).

Both are the beginning, the first stage, the original condition where nothing is distinct.

Alchemy has nothing to do with the making of gold, though that is how the layman regards it.

This is a very comprehensible prejudice because of the language used by the alchemists themselves, they speak
as if the making of gold were their aim.

When one reads their works attentively, however, one becomes more and more doubtful, for they search for gold in a metaphysical
way and use extremely peculiar terms.

Moreover, we find passages where they directly tell us that their gold is not the ordinary gold.

When one studies the symbols which appear in alchemy closely, one finds a great deal of exceedingly interesting psychology
which has never come to the daylight because only chemists have been interested in alchemy.

Their knowledge does not lie in the psychological field so the real meaning of alchemy has remained dark.

Alchemy began at latest in the first century A.D. and is really a curious process of initiation, a sort of practical Yoga.

Outwardly there is no resemblance between Yoga and alchemy, the procedure is entirely different.

Alchemy works as a sort of chemistry on actual matter and yet it is essentially Yoga and the symbols which arise in both are
very similar.

Alchemy was a ” royal art”; “our philosophy” the alchemists called it.

They took infinite pains with their work, they live d their philosophy and really experienced their visions.

Berthelot’s “Collection des anciens Alchimistes grecs” contains some very early Greek texts, the “Papyrus de Leide” [Leyden],
for example.

Pseudo Democritus and Komarius are the earliest alchemists we know of.

All these texts also consist of practical advice to gold makers and forgers.

There is a great deal of gold forging in the near East, many Europeans who have visited the bazaars in Cairo know that to their cost!
Old alchemy consists in prescriptions for gold smelting and so-called chemistry, and you find philosophy sandwiched in between.

We should call such philosophy mysticism, for that is the modern way of explaining everything which we do not understand.

There are also some interesting texts of a religious nature to be found in the books of Dieterich and others.

One of the earlier and most interesting of the alchemists was Zosimos who lived in the third century A. D.

He wrote in the same style as Komarius and Pseudo Democritus, chemical prescriptions with Gnostic philosophy sandwiched
in between.

His principal work consists of letters to Theosebie, his soror mystica (spiritual sister).

Women played a considerable part in alchemy, and worked at it themselves.

This is not the case in Indian Yoga, with the exception of Tantrism.

Alchemy begins with the concept of chaos, the condition of the beginning of the world.

Everything is mixed together and we find the most unlikely things, such as flames with drops of water existing between them.

There are fragments of minerals and planets and the signs of the Zodiac, the opposites related to or in conflict with each
other, everything is in the wildest confusion.

There is an excellent representation of this in an old book called “Le Temple des Muses”.

It is called “Le Cahosou l’origine du monde”. (See sketch p. 93.)

This chaos is thought of as dark, as we find it described in Genesis:

“And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was up on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of
God moved up on the face of the waters”

The alchemists frequently quote this last sentence.

The darkness of the beginning of the world must be impregnated by the Spirit of God.

The four rhizomata, that is the four elements, emerge from the chaos.

These are the four parts which the old Greek philosophers expressed in the tetramerein ten philosophian.

This has a double meaning for the prima materia is philosophical matter and philosophy also has to be divided into four parts.

This way of thinking is incomprehensible to us but we must think in the spirit of the Middle Ages in order to reach its meaning.

We must remember that the chemical elements of matter were still unknown, matter was a mystery and a marvel to medieval man,
so everything which he did not understand was projected into it, everything that was unconscious.

The thing which we do not understand is the unconscious ruling of the psyche and our philosophy is concerned with that.

But the alchemists projected their philosophy into matter.

Real philosophy is an experience and their experience was projected into matter.

Matter was an unknown world to these old explorers, a wonderland in which the whole unconscious was projected.

So they divided matter into the four elements and philosophy into four parts.

This quartering was described as a series of four colours, first the nigredo, (darkness), then the albedo (light], then the citrinitas
(yellow] and then a curious colour usually given by the Greek word ios or iosis, to become.

It is questionable what colour this is.

Berthelot sometimes translates it as violet.

The colours indicate the four directions and are the qualities of the four functions, of consciousness.

It is really a case of dividing up the unconscious into four recognisable functions, a differentiating of the chaos into a world where
you can sense, think, feel and have intuitions; and from this totality Mt. Meru, the world mountain, emerges.

The old idea of chaos was that it held everything in potentia including man.

This potential man was not the biological man but the philosophical man, a peculiar being, which is also sometimes called anima.

This man was not included in any of the four elements, he was in the materia but was described as ethereal matter.

A subtle body, breath or smoke resembling, which can also be correctly described as anima.

Anima is the feminine of animus, which is identical with the Greek word anemos which means wind or breath.

You find this concept running through alchemy and it is everywhere on earth in some form or other, even in the idea of haunted
houses and ghosts.

It is something which is not immaterial but made of exceedingly refined subtle material, and it is from this that the homo philosophicus

This primal or potential being is also often called the philosophical egg, and the alchemists divide this egg into four natures or elements.

In the chaos the four are all together as a unity: in the Tetrameria this unity is separated into four; and afterwards it becomes one again;
but the second unity is the completed and perfected form of the potential unity in the chaos.

The separation of the elements is also identified with the four seasons of the year.

This establishes a connection between the homo philosophicus and time.

We find the same idea in India, Prajapati is connected with the year.

The Church’s year follows the course of Christ’s life, which ‘symbolises the course of time.

We meet this same idea with the Neo-Platonists in Chronos or Aion, creative time.

Proclus said: “Always where there is creation there is also time.”

Bergson’s “dunce creatrice” springs from this idea.

Bergson’s philosophy, which is called intuitive philosophy, is entirely intellectual except for this one intuition, and that
belongs to Proclus.

The separation into four is finally brought to an end by the Conjunctio.

Mt. Meru, the world mountain, in our text is the beginning of the perfected unity.

It was a unity in the Void, we saw the course of its division into four and how everything was united again in Mt. Meru.

An old alchemist said that this perfected unity was accomplished through moral philosophy.

That is medieval language, in modern language it is accomplished by a psychological procedure, the four are separated,
understood and united again.

In this connection I must mention an old author of the 16th century, a philosophical doctor, Dorneus, he was a sort of
colleague of mine!

He said: “Do you know that the heaven and the earth first of all were one, and that then through the art of the Creator
they were divided into four so that you and all else could be created.”

This is an interesting intuition of the quartering which is an age-old idea, perhaps even megalithic.

An Englishman, Mr. Layard, whom I know personally, lived for some time on Malekula, in the New Hebrides.

The people there are still living in megalithic times, they have a stone cult and dolmens.

Mr. Layard found out some very interesting things.

The people of Malekula have a symbolic quartering in their initiation ceremonies.

We find exactly the same idea in alchemy, in the mortification, the quartering, of the unity in the chaos.

There are some interesting pictures in an old alchemical book, Salomon Trissmosin: Aurem Vellus.

One of them, in the Splendor Solis, shows the homo philosophicus with his four limbs cut off. [See tracing, p. 95).

We find the same theme in many alchemical texts, for instance: “Matrem mortifica, manus ejus et pedes abs cindens,”
(Mortify your mother and cut off her hands and feet].

This is exactly what is done in Malekula today, symbolically of course, not actually.

The idea behind all this is the sacrifice of the purely natural man, the sacrifice of primordial nature.

The Kavirondos say that people only become human beings through initiation, before that they are animals.

This is the sacrifice of avidya, of not knowing, of being a purely instinctive creature.

This instinctive unity is divided into four and is reunited.

This second unity is Mt. Meru.

The theme of the mountain plays an important role in alchemy.

In the allegory of the Mons Mambracus a wonderful plant grows on its summit.

It is called lunaria or lunatica, and lollium.

The latter is a real plant but the former cannot be traced, it is a phantasy plant.

The idea is that the drink made from this plant, which must be sought for on the highest peak, causes intoxication.

But it is also the panacea which is often mentioned as indispensable to alchemy in order to transform the originally
imperfect prima materia and bring it over into the perfect condition.

The indispensable herb, the universal remedy, is sometimes expressed differently, Komarius speaks of it as a miraculous
stone to be found on the highest peak.

In later alchemy we sometimes find the panacea represented by a King who stands on a silver mountain from which golden
streams pour down.

This is a direct analogy to Mt. Meru, from which golden streams also flow down and which is surrounded by the Jambrinada
River that is full of gold.

We find birds mentioned in alchemy in connection with the mountain, they fly to or live on the summits of the mountain.

The mountain corresponds to the highest point in the retort where the sublimated steam rises from the boiling materia.

There is a chapter in a book of Michael Maier’s, for instance, where the emblem at the top of the page is a vulture,
sitting on the top of a mountain and saying: “I am black, white, yellow and red.”

He is four coloured, an exact parallel to our four-headed Vajra.

The symbolism used in these alchemical texts is very bewildering and when one studies it closely one realises that
the thinking of these medieval explorers of nature was still very much under the influence of the language of the Fathers
of the Church.

One must, therefore, carefully examine the meaning attributed to the symbols by the Church.

The early Fathers of the Church speak of the mountain as a symbol for Christ.

St. Ambrose speaks of Christ as the “mons exiguus et magnus,” (a very small mountain and at the same time a big one.)
and St. Augustine as ” mons magnus ex lapide parva ” (the large mountain which came out of a small stone).

This curious idea refers to a passage in the book of Daniel where a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands and
smote the feet of the great image, which were of iron and clay, and broke them to pieces.

The stone then became a great mountain which filled the whole earth.

This stone was connected with Christ and he is also called the corner stone.

St. Paul speaks of:

“Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth into an holy temple
in the Lord.”

So Christ is the small stone out of which the whole mountain grows and, of course, Mary is also the mountain because the
small stone comes out of her. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 24Feb1939, Pages 90-96.